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Révoltes et révolutions en Europe et aux Amériques (): () [Philippe La question d'histoire moderne proposée à l'Agrégation et au Capes d'h istoire, Paperback; Publisher: Sedes (October 20, ); Language: French; ISBN Try the Kindle edition and experience these great reading features.
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The topic announced for this exam appeared broadly comparative; it asked about "Revolts and Revolutions in Europe including Russia and in the Americas, — In practice, however, the Haitian Revolution was either ignored or poorly presented in most of the manuals and bibliographies created to prepare students for the exam.
To explain this lapse, I will briefly compare American and French traditions of writing about Haitian independence, focusing on different approaches to race and on the phenomenon of Atlantic history. I then turn to some specific ways in which the CAPES guides covered the Haitian Revolution with implications for what French students are — and are not — learning about race and France's colonial past. The Haitian Revolution — the first successful rebellion of African slaves in the Americas — horrified whites throughout the Atlantic world.
For slaveowners and their allies, the world was turned upside down; the very words "Saint-Domingue" conjured up a terrifying alternative universe in which whites could lose their power, their fortunes, and even their lives. For over a century, these cataclysmic effects prompted a kind of amnesia in both the United States and France in which the Haitian Revolution was erased from both popular and scholarly memory. In the United States, this situation has been changing. Since the s, several waves of scholarship have created a sizable literature on the impact of the Haitian Revolution in the United States.
Historians have explored the effects of the Haitian Revolution not only on whites in different regions and political parties, but also on free and enslaved American blacks. Scholarship on the impact of the Haitian Revolution in France, however, has been much less extensive. Whereas no less than twelve monographs treat the American reaction to the Haitian Revolution, there is only one, single-volume account of early French-Haitian relations.
Groundbreaking work in the s and 60s by Haitian scholars was virtually ignored in France, and only since the late s have French scholars begun to turn to this topic.
What accounts for this disparity in remembering Haiti? Elsewhere, I have considered several factors ranging from American foreign policy to institutional differences to the ways the histories of slavery and race have been treated in the United States and in France. Indeed, though these countries share slaveholding pasts, they have followed different paths in studying and remembering them. In the United States, a Civil War and a Civil Rights movement have made citizens acutely conscious of race, even if they have not always agreed about how to regard its historical legacy.
Studies of race have become a staple of university history curricula. In metropolitan France, however, the story looks different. Until very recently, both lay people and scholars shared what the late Yves Benot called a national amnesia oubli about the history of slavery. This lack of interest can be explained in part by the fact that both colonial expansion and the plantation system took place outside the hexagon, making slavery seem less central to France's past.
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While a law the loi Taubira finally acknowledged the evils of France's slaveholding past, it was seemingly eviscerated by the infamous law of February , which mandated that schools teach about the "positive" value of French colonialism. This longtime amnesia with regard to the history of slavery has been compounded by the fact that the concept of race is anathema in France.
French universalism has traditionally produced a reluctance to differentiate between citizens, and the idea of race has been further discredited since the Shoah. Since the vast majority of French people outside the Far Right refuse to use the concept to classify people, whether for censuses or in public discourse, studying the place of race in French history seems not only illogical but also dangerous.
This attitude, however well-intentioned, has resulted in an even greater inattention to France's colonial past. In contrast to the United States, books on the history of race have difficulty finding publishers in France because their topic appears scandalous. The phenomenon of Atlantic history compounds the differences between the two historiographies.
Spurred by the Harvard Atlantic World Seminar and by a flood of scholarship on transatlantic linkages, "Atlantic world" has become one of the hot fields in the American academe. It has not, however, been a central paradigm in France, for reasons ranging from a belief that it is an Anglo-American model ill-suited to the French experience to a greater focus in France on domestic history and on the Mediterranean. Finally, the greater amnesia about Haiti in France stems from the island's special place in national history.
Unlike in the American case, the Haitian Revolution was a direct blow against France.
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Whereas for Americans, Haitian independence can serve as a useful site to study Atlantic connections or the founding fathers' ideas on race, in France it cannot be examined with the same detachment. On the contrary, the study of Haitian independence exposes both the hypocrisy of the French civilizing mission and the inconsistency of republican principles.
As Francis Arzalier has asked, if the French Revolution was as liberating as national mythology implies, why would free and enslaved people of color have needed to revolt against it? For these tests, the approximately eight thousand students each year who wish to be high school or university history teachers take an exam covering four periods of history.
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Though topics have the most direct impact on students preparing for the exam, they also exert a powerful influence on the direction of historiography nationally; university faculty must design and teach new courses treating them, and prominent scholars rush to publish study guides analyzing the state of the field. Scholars who work on Atlantic history and on the Caribbean were delighted when the early modern question began to circulate, with its focus on transatlantic revolutions in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Silvia Marzagalli has found, though, that that competition ended up spurring very little Atlantic-studies scholarship. By , there were signs of greater interest in the Atlantic. Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. How it works: 1.
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